Black Smokers at Higher Risk For Diabetes

Black adults who are heavy smokers may be more likely to develop diabetes - Bonner County Daily Bee Black adults who are heavy smokers may be more likely to develop diabetes – Bonner County Daily Bee

Wed, 04 Jan 2017 21:45:41 GMT

He knows cigarettes are bad for him. He knows years of smoking cause the pain in his lungs when he runs up and down the basketball court. But Terrence Raper said he’s not quitting any time soon. “My health is not really a major concern of my own,” said 

 The veteran of Iraq and Afghanistan started smoking in the Army about 10 years ago.

Researcher Wendy White, Ph.D., hopes the work she does changes Raper’s mind. The scientist at Mississippi’s Tougaloo College has spent close to 15 years studying how smoking affects the health of black Americans. Results from a recent study she led suggest heavy smoking increases the risk of diabetes in blacks, who have higher rates of the disease compared to U.S. whites and Hispanics.

For the study, the investigators selected nearly 3,000 people, mostly women, who did not have diabetes when they enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study, a large study of cardiovascular disease in African-Americans. The researchers looked at data from more than half of the people in the Jackson sample.

The majority of subjects had never smoked when they signed up. Only 361 people smoked, and 119 of them were heavy smokers, meaning they smoked at least 20 cigarettes or a pack daily.

White said the No. 1 finding is that smoking at least a pack a day may cause diabetes in blacks. Both diabetes and smoking are tied to cardiovascular disease.

“We hear all the time about smoking and lung cancer and other lung disease, but the risk with smoking and diabetes is there,” said White, the deputy director of the Jackson Heart Studys Undergraduate Training and Education Center.

The findings were presented in November at the American Heart Associations Scientific Sessions.

The link between smoking and diabetes is important, she said, because it is very damaging to the body and diabetics can lose limbs or have other complications.

Its also expensive to treat: The estimated medical costs of treating diabetes were $245 billion in 2012.

The study statistics show 466 participants were diagnosed with new cases of diabetes between 2000 and 2012. Among past smokers and those who smoked less than a pack a day, the rate of new diabetes diagnoses was similar to those who never smoked. But the rate of new cases among smokers who consumed at least a pack a day was 62 percent higher compared to those who never smoked.

A recent report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows that American Indians and Alaska Natives are much more likely to smoke cigarettes than other race and ethnic groups. Hispanics and Asians have the lowest smoking rates.

According to the CDC’s statistics, about 17 percent of whites and blacks smoke cigarettes. Black men are more likely to smoke than their white peers, but black women are less likely to smoke than white women. A diabetes diagnosis is more common among black adults than white and Hispanic adults.

One of the interesting things that we saw was that smoking was associated with increased amounts of fat within the abdomen, said Michael E. Hall, M.D., a study co-author and an assistant professor of medicine in the division of cardiology at the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson. Visceral fat was higher in current smokers, and this is what we think is one of the potential mechanisms by which smoking may increase the risk of diabetes.

Hall, a co-investigator on a project under the AHAs Tobacco Regulation and Addiction Center, added: Fat within the abdomen has several potential adverse effects which affect glucose. This fat causes alterations in hormones that regulate blood glucose and it may cause more inflammation.

Cardiovascular disease researcher Neha Pagidipati, M.D., said the study is helpful because there’s little information about the link between smoking and diabetes in blacks.

“I think this study was important because it looked at a very important and modifiable risk factor in a population that has generally been understudied in terms of cardiovascular risk factors,” said Pagidipati, a cardiology fellow at Duke University’s School of Medicine who was not involved in the study.

The findings, however, don’t definitively show heavy cigarette smoking causes diabetes, she said, and scientists should look deeper into that relationship. This is an important issue.

White said she would like to see health advocacy groups and federal agencies address the link between smoking and diabetes in education campaigns. She thinks aggressive messages that show the ugly side of smoking are effective.

Hall, who has patients who smoke, said doctors should talk to their patients about the smoking-diabetes connection. He said many smokers don’t quit until faced with a major health problem.

Raper, a graduate film student, said he’s not worried about the damage smoking has done to his body.

“I can’t control when I’m not going to be around. And whether I’m smoking or not smoking, he said, I don’t think really it makes much of a difference.”

He’s tried quitting, and wants to before his 30th birthday mainly because he wants to stop spending the $80 to $100 month on his cigarettes. Smoking campaigns generally dont speak to him because he said scare tactics dont work on adults.

“You can stop kids from starting to smoke, Raper said. But getting somebody to quit at an older age is a completely different story.


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Got Diabetes? Quit Smoking

It’s time you quit smoking particularly if you are diabetic. But, If you have diabetes, you may need to more closely monitor your blood sugar after you quit. New research found that diabetes cases who quit smoking could have more trouble keeping their blood sugar under control . The authors of the results of the study supposed cases should be proactive about their blood sugar during the first few years after ceasing smoking.

Still, the researchers stressed that the benefits of ceasing are value this additional effort, as smoking with diabetes can cause potentially lethal complications. Ask your doctor for help to quit smoking, today ..

cigarette photo

Could a missing enzyme be the cause of Type II Diabetes?

For years, it’s been thought that type 2 diabetes “starts” with obesity…………… As the science has expanded, it has become clear, obesity and type 2 diabetes, are associated with low grade inflammation. So what causes the this inflammation ? Well, one theory……………. UNHAPPY fat cells. . But, there are people who are morbidly obese, with contented fat cells and normal weight individuals, who are ON FIRE. So, fat cells aren’t responsible for ALL this inflammation. Which leaves UNHAPPY gut cells, specifically the cells that line the gut, as another potential source of this INFLAMMATION.  The problem is when the gut becomes leaky.

Remember, small things can make a big difference to your health. Now the gut is an interesting place – if you think of your body as donut, the gut IS THE HOLE in the middle. It’s outside and inside at the same time. Now the cells lining the hole, the enterocytes – have their work cut out for them. These little guys have to keep the bad things out and let the good things in. Unfortunately for them – GOOD and BAD, is not black and white. And, getting things in, is not just simply a case of opening up the gate, things have to be PROCESSED. And PROCESSING depends on exactly what has arrived and who is available. And in every bite, there is good, bad and ugly. Now to be fair, it’s a team effort. The gut cells get a lot of help and support from the immune system and some of the bacterial residents. Some……………… NOT ALL. Remember, there are a trillion or so bacteria, jostling for a bite to eat and a place to sleep.

. One particularly troublesome bacterial waste product, is lipopolysaccharide, (LPS). Now, it’s not something the bacteria produce, deliberately – but when bacteria that belong to the gram negative clan, roll out their sleeves and get busy. They leave LPS behind. Now, when this LPS is not picked up inflammation can occur.The reason, the LPS doesn’t sit tight, it can slip past the layers of cells lining the gut and get INSIDE. Once in the blood vessels, the immune system goes “crazy” – they’re thinking INVASION etc, so the presence of LPS causes inflammation ! Now, this problem of metabolic endotoxemia is one, of many metabolic problems associated with metabolic syndrome. The question is, could this be THE PROBLEM ? Well, this is supposed to happen.

Intestinal alkaline phosphatase or IAP, should sweep through the gut and clean up. IAP is a pretty tough enzyme, it persists all the way down the GI tract. All the way down – it appears in the POOP. A researcher from MH Samorita Medical College in Dhakar, set out to quantify how, the IAP clean up crew was, in type 2 diabetics. So POOP samples were collected from Bangladeshi residents, with the help of a team of local doctors. The patients were all between the ages of 30 and 70 years. 202 people were diabetic. These people either had fasting blood glucose levels higher than 7 mM or they were taking diabetes medication. The control was 445 healthy people. The IAP poop data was correlated with metabolic health. In people who had type 2 diabetes, the clean up crew was short staffed. On average, people with type 2 diabetes had 50 % less, IAP in their poop. So what………… isn’t it just another thing that’s gone awry in type 2 diabetes ? Well, this patient population, was not the typical patient population studied in the West – there was little to no obesity.

In fact, only their total cholesterol levels, LDL and fasting glucose levels were significantly different.  So to all intents and purposes, the diabetics were “normal” except for the fact that the clean up crew, was short staffed. When the numbers were crunched, it was found for every 25 U/g decrease in stool IAP, there is was a 35% increased risk of diabetes. Is IAP the straw that breaks the camels back ? Could be. At this stage, “we” don’t know why the IAP level is lower, but having more seems push the odds in your favour – and who doesn’t what the odds tipped in their favour. Especially when you realize, IAP levels are responsive to what you eat. A quick list of some of the nutrients known to stimulate IAP release… calcium, Vitamin K1 and K2, saturated fat, several spices and omega-3.

So you can create BETTER BODY CHEMISTRY. Interested in discovering more ways to create BETTER BODY CHEMISTRY or need a little help getting your body chemistry on track ? Visit  WWW BETTER BODY CHEMISTRY . COM, browse our library or get a little help with your body chemistry, by signing up for a body audit. The advice is simple to follow and based on real science, not hype. Know someone who is diabetic or pre-diabetic ? Share this video with them – so they know how important it is to have this enzyme servicing their gut.


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